Climate for Sorghum Cultivation Jowar crops grow well in hot and humid climates. Out of the total area under jowar cultivation in India, 50% is cultivated in Maharashtra. Palea is small and thin. Small farms produce 41 … Read more "Agricultural Production and Cultivation in Uttarakhand" ), popularly known as jowar, is the most important food and fodder crop of dryland agriculture. It is believed to have originated in Africa and Asia. Each lateral may rebranch and branches of the -third order may form, ultimate branchlets bearing one to several paired spikelets. In India, jowar has been included as a commodity in the commodity market. Bio-Fuel Production Through Jowar and Bajra Feedstock Cultivation: A Socio-Economic and Life Cycle Analysisv farmers involved in the multi-locational crop trials conducted/coordinated by ICRISAT, RVSKVV and IIMR and the emerging empirical data was analysed vis-à-vis baseline data. One more advantage of this crop is that it can be grown in both Kharif and Rabi season. The perfect floret has a membranous, hairy lemma, two-cleft at the apex, an awn arising in the cleft. (vii) Mites (Oligonychus indicus), which can be controlled by dusting sulphur or spraying 0.05% wettable sulphur. From the point of view of production, it is grown as a Rabi and kharif crop and also in summers. In India, Tamil Nadu is the highest producer of this staple crop and this is followed by Uttar Pradesh. Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu. In India average size of land holdings was 2.30 hectares in 1950-51 which reduced to 1.52 hectares in 2008-09. The total annual area under sorghum in India varies from 17 to 18 million hectares and the range of annual production of grains in the country is from 10 to 11 million tonnes. Fertile spikelets relatively large; the shape may be ovate, oval, elliptical or obovate. Harrowing should be done 2-3 times and intercrossing ploughing is ideal. Commercial Sorghum species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. It will grow up to a height of 4 m. Ragi is monocropped in India under irrigation or transplantation. A well-developed panicle of sorghum may contain about 2,000 seeds. Harvesting and threshing are done man­ually. It was probably in the first millennium that jowar plants were brought from African countries into India. A two-year rotation of jowar-cotton is very common during kharif in the Deccan area and also in central plateau, whereas during Rabi, jowar-cotton, jowar-gram or jowar-jowar rotations are common. Jowar is par excellence a rainfed crop of dry farming areas where irrigation is not used. barley, getreideanbau, barley cultivation, cereals, field, spike, grain, agriculture, cornfield, hordeum vulgare, hordeum licorice Public Domain (ix) Head smut caused by Sphacelotheca reiliana, which can be controlled by treating the seed with Agrosan GN @ 2 g/kg, practising crop rotation and burning smut­ted ears. Terms of Service 7. North Western states like Haryana, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh provide some important contribution. (vi) Ascochyta leaf spot caused by Ascochyta sorghina, which can be controlled by growing resistant varieties, practising crop rotation and improving soil fertility. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgarePers. Photo about Jowar grain sorghum crop farm. It is grown as a Rabi crop and in some areas as a kharif crop, from the months of October to February. All forms usually hairy at the nodes. Certain other states also grow sorghum for fodder, but only on a limited scale. Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) Crop is sensitive to low temperature. The ideal temperature for growing Jowar is 20-40 degree Celsius. One more advantage of this crop is that it can be grown in both Kharif and Rabi season. For successful cultivation of sorghum, the soil must be well drained and free from too much of salts. PRACTICAS 4. The crop is also grown in Bundelkhand area in UP. Jowar and safflower are commonly mixed during Rabi. Lateral branches develop at the nodes. This millet is also known as ‘Jowar’ in India. are grown as Kharif crops i.e. While weeds are a problem in red soils in kharif, they are not quite serious in black soils. Content Filtration 6. It has strong roots which extend up to 2.5mtrs below ground. Since it can grow in semi arid climates, where other crops do not have a chance of growing, this crop has been grown in these areas. For raising a good crop of jowar, manuring is essen­tial. Sorghum was grown in Egypt prior to 2200 B. C. and since then has been an important crop in that country. Cultivation. (v) Cut worms (Agrotis ipsilon and A. flammatra), which can be controlled by dusting 10% BHC on the soil around the plants. Areas where the consumption of jowar is high, they are grown in many of the agricultural lands. (viii) Chlorosis caused by virus, for which no control measure is known. After a month, nitrogen is applied again at the rate of 37.5 kg per hectare. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. After wheat, the maximum amount of cultivated land in India is used for growing Jowar. Some of the hybrids and varieties now recommended for different states are indicated below: The diseases which, commonly attack jowar, are: (i) Downy mildew caused by Sclerospora sorghi, which can be controlled by seed – dressing with Ridomil 25 and by growing resistant varieties. The grain is dried in the sun and stored. Space between the seed rows should be abo. Jowar. As part of the food grain in India, jowar is produced to the extent of about 8% of the total area, while among the cereals, it has the capacity of about 10%. Both excessive moisture and prolonged droughts are harmful for its proper growth. When the spikelets are paired, one is sessile and perfect, the other pedicelled and staminate. Inflorescence is somewhat compact panicle except in certain types. Mixed cropping of jowar-arhar is very common. In irrigated areas, 57 to 68 kg of nitrogen, 62.5 kg of phosphate and 35 kg potash per hectare may be applied as the first dose, which may be fol­lowed by the second dose of nitrogen at the rate of 57 to 68 kg, 30 to 40 days after sowing. The grain is also malted or popped. For grain purposes, 12.5 kg of seed per hectare is ne­cessary. Due to this crop being a kharif crop, people can go for its cultivation during the months of May and September, possible to be cultivated along with other crops such as jowar, cotton and ragi. Intercultural operations are done with bullock-drawn implements. During the first ploughing, the soil should be turned, so that there is loose soil up to a depth of about 20-25 cms. Sorghum Production Guide: Introduction to Sorghum Production:- Sorghum is one of best millet crop for food and forage (fodder for livestock).This provides very good staple food in highly populated countries in Asia. (iv) Aphids (Aphis sacchari and Rhopalosiphum maidis), which can be controlled by spraying 0.02% Phosphamidon, 0.01% Diazinon, Methyldemeton or Dimethoate. Jowar, bajra cultivation to drop this year | Nashik News - Times of India As per the estimates of the agriculture department here, cultivation of cereals like jowar and … The crop is very important, both as food and fodder, in dry areas. Food habits cause a drop in jowar cultivation; This story is from December 12, 2018. Introduction: Hello farmers, we are here with good information about Sorghum cultivation income (Jowar), yield per acre, and cost of cultivation. Spikelets usually occur in pairs on terminal racemes, except towards the tip, where they may occur in threes. When in three, one sessile and perfect, the other is pedicilled and staminate; or at times, one staminate and the others perfect. Regions with high temperature throughout the year and humid conditions are ideally suited for growing Jowar plants. Privacy Policy 9. Agriculture, Millet Crops, Sorghum, Cultivation, How to, Cultivate Sorghum. Geographical Conditions of Growth: It is a rainfed crop mostly grown in moist areas which hardly needs irrigation. In temperate regions, it is grown during summer, whereas in tropics it can be grown throughout the year. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is the fifth most important cereal crop in the world belongs to the family Poaceae. Content Guidelines 2. Account Disable 12. Ligule short membranous and fringed. Black cotton soils are categorized as best soils for its cultivation. The grain is used primarily as human food. It is grown as a Rabi crop and in some areas as a kharif crop, from the months of October to February. Moreover, coarse grains are more adaptable and tolerable towards climate shocks when compared to other crops. Each fertile spikelet has 2 glumes, about equal in length, one outer and another inner; both nerved. The main axis varies in length. The entire plant is used as forage, hay or silage. Within the glumes, two flo­rets present, the lower sterile and the upper perfect. In this process, all plants that bring about competition to the sesame crop should be removed to ensure that the Sesame crops are growing in healthy and free environment. A soil pH range of 7 to 8 is quite suitable for the crop. This crop requires moderate rainfall of 30-100cms and high temperatures ranging from 20 to 32°C. The local varieties mature in 130-150 days, whereas im­proved varieties and hybrids mature in 100-120 days. Uploader Agreement. Much higher yields of 6,000-7,000 kg have been obtained under optimal condi­tions. Disclaimer 8. Some of the varieties developed during the early period, which are still under cultiva­tion, are the Co-series of Tamil Nadu; the Nandyal, Guntur and Ankapalle series of AP; the PJ selections (kharif and rabi), Saoner, Ramkel, Aispuri, Maldandis and Dagadi (compact- head) selections of Maharashtra; the Bilichigan, Kanki Nandyal, Hagari, Fulgar white, Fulgar yellow, and Yenigar varieties of Karnataka; Budhperio, Sundhia and Chasatio of Gujarat; the selections of Gwalior and Indore of MP; RS selections of Rajasthan and also a few others. Though it can be grown in a variety of soils including loamy and sandy soils, clayey deep regur and alluvium are the best suited soils for jowar. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. To have a good produce, about 12-15 hectares of land should be suitable. Over the decades, the area under production of jowar and its total output has gone down. Although sorghum is of tropical origin, it has been adopted by breeding for cultivation in temperate regions provided temperatures are sufficiently high. (ii) Stem borers (Chilo zonellus), which can be controlled by ploughing and destroying all the stubbles after harvest, applying Endosulfan or Carbaryl granules or spraying Lindane. cultivation practices of Kharif jowar, whereas land holding, annual income, family type, social participation, source of information and market orientation were having non-significantly relationship with knowledge of the farmers about improved cultivation practices of Kharif For cultivation of jowar, the soil requirement in India is usually regur soil, with clayey and alluvium properties. Seeds are sown with a seed-drill in rows, 30-45 cm apart. Known as sorghum in English, Jowar is globally being touted as the “new quinoa” for its gluten-free, whole grain goodness. In the lower floret, only lemma present, which is broad, usually pubescent and membranous. During the growing season, it requires rainfall, while the maturity of the plants is seen mostly during the north easterly winds and temperature is somewhat higher in winter. Free PDF Download of CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Agriculture Multiple Choice Questions with Answers. Image Guidelines 4. Sorghum is raised predominantly in vertisols and to lesser extent in alfisols. (vii) Leaf stripe caused by Pseudomonas sorghi-cola, for which no control measure is known. With the availability of short-duration varieties of jowar, the practice of multiple cropping is now in vogue even under rain-fed conditions in areas, where the rainfall is assured. In rain-fed areas, 37.5 kg each of nitrogen and phosphate and 35 kg of potash per hectare may be applied as the first dose, at the time of sowing. Rainfed it is mostly intercropped with cereals, castor bean, niger, groundnut and pulses. The first weeding should be done three to four weeks after planting. (vi) Hairy caterpillars (Amsacta moorei and Estigmene lactinae), which can be controlled by dusting 10% BHC. Sorghum is grown in India in a wide range of soil types. Out of the total area under jowar cultivation in India, 50% is cultivated in Maharashtra. Seeds are rounded and pointed at the base, the color being brownish, yellow, pink or white. The average rainfall in the sorghum belt generally ranges from 40 to 100 cm, which is usually received between the last week of June and the first week of October in most parts of India. Eight hybrids, CSH-1 to CSH-8, and seven high-yielding varieties, CSV-1 to CSV-7, were released for large-scale cultivation some years ago. Wheat flower. While the average yields of grain in India are low and are around 500 kg per hectare, the yields of high-yielding hybrids and varieties range between 2,000 and 3,000 kg under average conditions. Although there is enough scope, grain sorghum is not now used widely as a feed for cattle, poultry ration and other industrial purposes. Total area of 184 lakh hectares in 1961 has come down to about 92 lakh hectares in 2003. Everything you need to learn about sorghum cultivation, harvest and growth. Under the botanical classification wheat crop belongs to genus Triticum. Sorghum has a sweet stock, which can be used as raw material for jaggery, ethanol, paper making and some other industrial purposes. Most of the improved varieties now available have been developed by pure line selection in local varieties. Jowar Production in India In India, jowar plant is grown in areas with less than 100 cm rainfall and temperature ranging from 26 deg to 33 deg C. After wheat, the sorghum or jowar is the grain with the highest cultivable land in the country. Importance of jowar as a crop is seen in its usage as animal feed and fodder, grown mostly in arid and semi arid climates of the world as well as in India. Ragi may be grown as a hot weather crop, from May to September, using long duration varieties and as a cold season crop, from November and December, using early types. (v) Bed leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum graminicola, which can be controlled by growing resistant varie­ties, practising crop rotation and improving soil fertility. Internodes short at the base, longer above; the terminal internode, which ends in the head, is the longest of all. Stamens 3 ovary with 2 long styles, each ending in a short, brushy stigma. as monsoon or autumn crops cultivated between June to November, as their moisture and rainfall requirements are such. Prohibited Content 3. It is used primarily as a livestock feed and fodder. “In rabi, jowar used to be a major crop in these parts,” recalled Adilabad Agriculture Officer (Technical) Shiva Kumar. In comparison to other cereal food items, jowar has a significant value. The pH value of soil ranges between 6 to 7.5 and this range is ideal for its cultivation and better growth. Threshing with the help of a tractor or a power-operated thresher is not very common. There are many species of this particular genus that is used for cultivation such as Triticum sativum, Triticum polonicum, Triticum monococcum, etc.However, Triticum sativum is the most cultivated wheat variety. (iv) Rust caused by Puccinia purpurea, which can be controlled by growing resistant varieties and by spraying 0.2% Dithane M 15 or by dusting finely divided sulphur. Foliage leaves vary in different varieties. In India, Jowar, known as Cholam in Tamil and Jonna in Telugu, is a staple, especially in the western and southern parts of the country where it is ground into flour and is used to make rotis, bhakri, cheela, dosa etc. Different parts of the country have the potential to have this important cereal crop grown, which is also a major product of agriculture in many other countries. Majority of the lands under jowar cultivation is in Peninsular India, with the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh taking up about 78% share of land and 81% of the produce. Soil. (iii) Sorghum midge (Contarinia sorghicola), which can be controlled by burning the panicle residue and chaff obtained after threshing of grain in order to destroy the larvae, by adopting a uniform date of sowing and by applying Endosulfan or Carbaryl or Lindane sprays or dusts. Medium and deep black soils are very suitable for growing it. Its use in different kinds of commercial purposes is making jowar an important agricultural product in the whole world. I uploaded vedio of jowar crops at my own land for 4 acre after 20 years it's one of the model crops every one must watch full vedio and follow it thank you. Besides, various other local preparations are made. SORGHUM CROP. Planking is then followed allowing the clods to break and make the field leveled. Inter-varietal hybridization has also been resorted to and this has led to the combination of existing yield levels with good forage quality. (iii) Loose smut caused by Sphacelotheca cruenta, which can be controlled by treating the seed with Agrosan GN before sowing @ 2 g/kg. Each hectare should be having about 1,50,000 plants. MCQ Questions for Class 10 Social Science with Answers was Prepared Based on Latest Exam Pattern. Well drained light soils are ideal. The land is prepared well with ploughs or blade harrows. sorghum, jowar, seeds, hubli, india, crop, food, plant, natural, botanical, organic Public Domain After a month, nitrogen is applied again at the rate of 37.5 kg per hectare. 2. • Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. moench) was probably initially domesticated in central Africa, in the region of Etiopia and Sudan. Subsequently, other true-breeding varieties and hybrids have been released. Leaf blades very similar to those of maize plant, but more erect. The rabi jowar occu­pies 36-38 per cent of the total area under the crop. Besides being a staple diet for the poorer section of the society, it is also used for animal feed and industrial raw materials. In India, jowar plant is grown in areas with less than 100 cm rainfall and temperature ranging from 26 deg to 33 deg C. After wheat, the sorghum or jowar is the grain with the highest cultivable land in the country. 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